International Society for Intellectual History

International Society for Intellectual History

“The ISIH was created in 1994 to promote the study and teaching of intellectual history in all its forms and to foster communication and interaction among the global community of scholars in the field.”

Among other projects, it is developing a database of twentieth-century authors whose work has shaped the development of intellectual history.

It also has a page on Facebook.

James A.T. Lancaster published a plug for my book back in 2014, and I had thought I’d posted an acknowledgement and thanks here, but either I’m wrong about that or it’s disappeared (I had some technical trouble a while back and a few posts may have been deleted).

So here it is again – a thank you from me, and a reciprocal plug for IHIS!

TIDE (Travel, Transculturality and Identity in England, c. 1500-1700)

Travel, Transculturality and Identity in England is a project funded by the ERC (European Research Council), exploring issues relating to strangers, travellers, migrants and so on. The website is an open-access resource consisting (at present) of some 40 essays contributed by Nandini Das, João Vicente Melo, Haig Smith, and Lauren Working based on keywords, such as “alien”, “citizen”, “foreigner” and “spy”.

I had the pleasure of meeting Professor Das at a couple of conferences in England a few years back, and it is a pleasure to see the fruits of her labours in this new project. Her introduction, explaining the project, can be found here.

How to Open an Online Clothing Boutique

How to Open an Online Clothing Boutique

If you have an interest in the fashion industry and love clothes, opening an online clothing boutique might be for you. There are a lot of advantages to opening an online boutique, such as low overhead. You do not have to rent an office and can use drop shipping to eliminate the need for warehouse space. Below are a few things to consider when starting an online boutique.

Licenses and Permits

The sale of clothing doesn’t require a special business license. An online clothing boutique requires essentially the same licensing as a brick and mortar store. You will want to officially form a business in your state. You can check out the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) website for help registering with your state in order to collect sales taxes. If you expect to be storing a large inventory of products, you might have to check out your local lease or zoning codes. However, this can be avoided by using drop shipping. This is a fulfillment method where you don’t hold any inventory. Instead, when a customer buys a product, you ship it directly from a third party manufacturer to the customer.

Type of Clothes

Before opening an online clothing store, you must consider the type of clothes you want to sell. Perhaps you can sell baby clothing for expecting mothers, back to school clothes for students or sports attire for gym goers. It is important to know who your target audience is before you start your business. This will help determine everything you do from the types of clothes you sell to how you advertise to your clients.

Franchise or Individual

Starting as a franchise can give you an upper hand by buying into an already established brand. You can leverage the brand’s already established customer base to drive sales as well as use their knowledge and proven marketing and operations strategies to run your business. However, within the online boutique space, there are not a lot of options. In many cases it is more cost effective to either start your own brand or buy an existing one.

Wholesale Suppliers

Use wholesale suppliers when looking for clothes for your online boutique. You can get very good wholesale rates from websites such as Alibaba or Globalsources.com, which have over two million qualified suppliers to choose from. If you are looking for quality wholesale clothing products, consider looking at Korean made clothing.

Another place to consider for wholesale clothing is fashion shows such as the Dallas Market Center Fashion Show or the Atlanta Apparel Market Fashion Show. They are places where you can see all the latest trends as well as talk with and buy directly from the suppliers.

Set Up Your Website

When setting up your website make sure to choose a shop name that customers will remember and that matches the type of clothes you are selling. It is important that it has a good presentation and is well

organized. If you do not know how to do this yourself, you can contact professionals or use ready-to-use ecommerce platforms such as Quick2Host.com or Shopify.

Storing Your Products

If you decide to store the products in your own home, make sure that they are properly stored in a cool, dry location away from pets, children, smoke and moisture. Consider buying insurance as a back-up. Even if you are using drop shipping or a fulfillment service such as Fulfillment by Amazon, still make sure to let them know how to properly store your products.

Market Yourself

Promote your clothing business. This can include hosting a fashion show featuring your products or using social marketing tools such as WordTree, Facebook and Instagram. However, make sure to make your content useful and engaging to your customers. Instead of just including photos of your clothes, show how they look like on a person and in everyday situations. Provide fashion tips. For example, what types of clothing might go well with one of your products.

The hurt(ful) body

The hurt(ful) body
Performing and beholding pain, 1600–1800
Edited by Dr Tomas Macsotay, Cornelis van der Haven and Karel Vanhaesebrouck
Manchester University Press, July 2017

I know! It has been too long – far too long – since I updated this blog! Nothing could illustrate that more clearly than the fact that this book came out a year ago and I am only now commenting on it, despite the fact that chapter 5, “Masochism and the female gaze”, was written by me!

This last year a lot of things have happened. Most notably, I retired from full-time teaching at Sophia University, Tokyo, in March. The whole build-up to, and immediate aftermath of, retirement was, for various reasons, quite a hectic time for me, and I just had to put some parts of my life on hold, including this blog.

But I’m back now, committed to posting regularly (once a week on average) and determined to catch up on lost ground.

So. The book. According to the blurb:

This book offers a cross-disciplinary approach to pain and suffering in the early modern period, based on research in the fields of literary studies, art history, theatre studies, cultural history and the study of emotions. The volume’s two-fold approach to the hurt body, defining ‘hurt’ from the perspectives of both victim and beholder – as well as their combined creation of a gaze – is unique. It establishes a double perspective about the riddle of ‘cruel’ viewing by tracking the shifting cultural meanings of victims’ bodies, and confronting them to the values of audiences, religious and popular institutional settings and practices of punishment. It encompasses both the victim’s presence as an image or performed event of pain and the conundrum of the look – the transmitted ‘pain’ experienced by the watching audience.

Or, if you prefer:

This book offers a cross-disciplinary approach to pain and suffering in the early modern period, based on research in the fields of literary studies, art history, theatre studies, cultural history and the study of emotions. It has a sustained focus on visual sources, textual material and documents about actual events rather than well-known thinkers or ‘masterpieces’ of art history, and a preference for cases and historical contexts over systematic theory-building. The hurt(ful) body brings under discussion visual and performative representations of embodied pain, using an insistently dialectical approach that takes into account the perspective of the hurt body itself, the power and afflictions of its beholder and, finally, the routinising and redeeming of hurt within institutional contexts. The volume’s two-fold approach of the hurt body, defining ‘hurt’ both from the perspective of the victim and the beholder (as well as their combined creation of a gaze), is unique. It establishes a double perspective about the riddle of ‘cruel’ viewing by tracking the shifting cultural meanings of victims’ bodies, and confronting them to the values of audiences, religious and popular institutional settings, and practices of punishment. It encompasses both the victim’s presence as an image or performed event of pain and the conundrum of the look – the transmitted ‘pain’ experienced by the watching audience. This will be done through three rubrics: the early modern performing body, beholder or audience responses, and the operations of institutional power. Because of its interdisciplinary approach of the history of pain and the hurt(ful) body, the book will be of interest for Lecturers and students from different fields, like the history of ideas, the history of the body, urban history, theatre studies, literary studies, art history, emotion studies and performance studies.

You can preview it on Google Books, and if you are interested in my chapter on masochism and the female gaze, here is a link to the final proof before publication. If you just want the gist, here’s the chapter abstract:

Masochism depends on fantasy, whether acted out or merely imagined, and the fantasy depends on an Other, who witnesses – either as an observer or as a participant – the suffering, real or imagined, of the fantasist, who in turn feels gratified. This particular concatenation of circumstances, though not recognized as a psychological predisposition until the nineteenth century, is generally considered to have emerged, in discourse and (probably) in practice, in the early modern period.[1] While there are potential dangers in reading the analyses of modern psychology back into earlier periods, there are also occasions when the insights of modern psychology can help to cast light on certain motifs and vignettes in early modern literature.

In this chapter, Yamamoto-Wilson examines the role of the Other’s gaze in early modern proto-masochistic fantasy, drawing on the poetry of (among others) William Browne, Aston Cokain, Michael Drayton, William Habington and Philip Sidney, the prose romance of John Crowne, the satire of Robert Greene and Thomas Nashe, a novella by Matteo Bandello, and the writings of Aphra Behn and Mary Wroth. By focusing on the function of the captivating female gaze, this chapter approaches the subversion of the chivalric tradition through the transgressive woman and the foolish man, and highlights the male anxiety generated by the female Other.

[1] Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Vol. 3: Analysis of the Sexual Impulse; Love and Pain; The Sexual Impulse in Women (2nd edn, Philadelphia, 1920), p. 132, identifies Pico della Mirandola, Disputationes … Aduersus Astrologi. Diuinatricem [Arguments against astrological divination] (Bologna, 1496; repr. [Lyons, 1498?]), sig. h5r, as ‘the earliest distinct reference to a masochistic flagellant’ and Johann Heinrich Meibom, De flagrorum usu in re veneria [On the use of whips in sexual circumstances] (Leyden, 1639), as the first treatise on the subject. Roy F. Baumeister, Social Psychology and Human Sexuality: Essential Readings (Philadelphia, 2001), p. 308, says ‘The abundant evidence of masochistic activity beginning in the eighteenth century contrasts sharply with the lack of any record of such activities prior to the Renaissance’, and Gordon Williams, A Dictionary of Sexual Language and Imagery in Shakespearean and Stuart Literature, vol. 1 (London, 1994), pp. 513–6, notes the emergence from late Elizabethan times on of an early modern sexual identity which came, in the later part of the seventeenth century, to be known as a ‘flogging cully’ (a man who could only be sexually aroused by being whipped).

The book mainly focuses on the gaze in visual art. I think mine is the only chapter that doesn’t have any pictures! But the poems and other texts I examine conjure up plenty of images. For example:

Oh, cruel Nymph! why do’st thou thus delight

To torture me? why thus my suff’rings slight?

My mournfull Songs neglected are by thee,

Thou art regardless of my Verse, and me.

Thou canst behold, with an unpittying Eye,

My sorrows, and art pleas’d to see me dye.

(Jane Barker, ‘A Pastoral, in Imitation of Virgil’s Second Euclogue’. In Poetical Recreations , 1688, p. 211.